If you are already familiar with the basics of reloading, you probably know that non-toxic loads are a little different in composition – in the load data or recipe – and that you can never simply substitute ingredients: using steel in a lead load, or a different primer or hull because you have a few left over. Switching ingredients or volumes, or something as simple as a wad type, may cause your load to perform poorly … or even disastrously. If the load data calls for a Windjammer WJI 20078 and you are out of this particular wad, find another recipe. If there is one universal caution before beginning this discussion, it is to stick tight to the load data.
Also, should you decide to hand load shotshells, be cautious about taking advice. A 12-gauge load develops barrel pressures between 6500 and 11000 psi. Rifle and handgun loads, even a .22 Hornet or a standard police-carry .40 S&W, operate at significantly higher pressures, two or three times safe shotgun levels, and one body of knowledge does not translate into another shooting medium. Beware also of individuals who are casual in their approach to loading shells. Freelance at your own risk!
Stick to the Load Data
Regarding load data for non-toxic shot, adhere strictly to established loading recipes. They will most likely spell out ingredients very specifically as in these examples, randomly selected 12-gauge loads from Alliant’s reloading manual for Steel Power which was formulated specifically for steel shot:
- 2 ¾-inch steel: Remington Nitro Mag hull and Federal 209A primer filled with 29.5 gr. of Alliant Steel powder, a TUPRW12 wad from Precision Reloading, and 1 1/8-ounce of steel shot, gives 1361 fps with safe barrel pressures of about 10,400 psi.
- 3-inch bismuth: Remington SPELV Yellow BW hull and Federal 209A primer filled with 45 gr. of Alliant Steel powder, a Rem RP12 wad, and 1 ½-ounce of bismuth shot gives 1441 fps with only slightly higher 10,700 psi.
- 3-inch Hevi-Shot: Fed 7/16 Paper BW hull and Federal 209A primer filled with 33 gr. of Alliant Steel powder, a TUPR23 (orange) wad from Precision Reloading, and 1 ½-ounce of Hevi-Shot, gives 1274 fps with 10,500 psi. The load requires a ¼-inch thick felt spacer under the shot for additional cushion and to take up space in the shell column.
~ from Gun Digest Book of Green Shooting by Rick Sapp